Teaching Aptitude Material

Teaching

Teaching is something by which any society can transmit the values and ideas which they consider are essential to the young generation.

Historical Perspective

Earlier, most of the occupational roles were learnt from one's own father within the home or through the process of apprenticeship (informal) but later after the emergence of industrial development, technological advancements and of new forms of economic organizations. there was another equally pressing reason for the rise of the formal system and knowledge came to be regarded as necessary for the common man to be able to lean an economically useful life.

Teacher

Catalyst of learning, pedagogical content specialist, facilitator of student learning, lifelong learner and reflective professional, collaborator and practitioner.

Teacher's Tasks

Electing suitable learning activities, preparing students for new learning, presenting learning activities, asking questions, assessing students' understanding, monitoring students' leaning, giving students feedback, reviewing, and re-teaching.

Teacher's Belief System

The belief system is built gradually over time and consists of both subjective and objective dimensions. their own experiences as learners, experience of what works best, established practise, personally factors, education based or research based principles, principles derived from an approach and method.

Culture of Teaching

Teacher's belief system serve as the background to most of teachers' decision making actions, constitute the 'culture of teaching. Teaching cultures are embodied in the belief about appropriate ways of acting on the job and knowledge that enables teachers to do their work. this view of teaching involves a cognitive, an affective, and behavioural dimension. it is based on the assumption that what teachers do is a reflection of what they know and believe, and that teacher knowledge and thinking provide that underlaying framework which guides the teacher's classroom actions.

Nature of Teaching

Nature of teaching is a judicious mix of a teacher's beliefs, a learner's socio-cultural context, and most importantly, society's expectations from the members. Therefore, the nature and characteristics of teaching are as follows its dynamic, its both art and science, it has diverse applications

Role of The Teacher

The roles of a teacher is primarily is occupational one, predetermined by the nature of schools and of the type of teaching that the institution requires. The teacher spends time studying the subject matter prior to teaching it. This is because subject matter knowledge has to be reconstructed into a form that is easily accessible to the learner national curriculum framework 2005 has stressed that a teacher-dominated classroom needs to be replaced with a learner-centered one. the learner needs to be the heart of the curriculum. there changes also affect the role of the teacher, from a transmitter to a facilitator of knowledge. 

Types of Learning

Reception Learning - Content to be learnt as presented to the learner.

Discovery Learning - content to be learnt as discovered by the learner. He re arranges the information with structure of knowledge in mind that is cognitive structures.

Meaningful Learning - learning task is related in a non-arbitrary verbatim fashion to what the learner already knows.

Rote Learning - opposite of meaningful learning - learning task is internalized in an arbitrary and verbatim fashion.

Types of Teaching Methods

Traditional (behaviorism) - knowledge is transferred, pedagogy s teacher centered, all students do the same task with no scope for diversity based on ability and aptitude. The teacher is the sole distributor of the knowledge and learning, learners are passive recipients in the process of learning, listening but not initiators in seeking clarifications, emphasis on achieving rather than understanding.

Constructivism (piaget) - learning is a process of subjective construction of knowledge based on the personal experience of the learner . the teacher takes roles as a facilitator and guide, answering questions, facilitating students in making theories and building learning constructs.

Learner's Characteristics

Learner is unique, learner is curious, motivated and alert to explore his immediate environment, all learners can learn if the learning is embedded and socio-cultural context, which organizing learning experiences enormous diversity amongst learners needs to be taken into account, the curriculum needs to meet the needs of all students, learner needs democratic learning environment, learner is curious and desirous to achieve predetermined goals and to go beyond the structured syllabus.

Modal of Teaching

A plan prepared by teacher to organize instructional material to implement teaching methods that achieve the curriculum goals.

Methods to Teaching

Different reaching methods are various constructs of learning theories suggested by the following

  • John Dewey - pragmatism idea of learning
  • Jean Piaget's constructivist paradigm of learning
  • Bruner's innovation of discovery learning
  • Vygostky's Socio-cultural approach to learning

They are divided in three broad categories-

  • Telling(lecture,discuss, instruction)
  • Showing(demo) and 
  • Doing(heuristic, discovery,project)

Lecture Method - the most ancient method, little of no participation of learner. It has only one way of communication and thee are knowledge provider and receiver.

Discussion Method - interactive method of teaching between two or more groups of learners on a topic of mutual interest but with no final stage predetermined. It widens the perspective and strengthens self belief.

Programmed Instruction (skinner) - the teacher plans a structured teaching schedule for each learner in accordance to the ability of the learner, contestant reinforcement is provided to strengthened the learning outcome.

Demonstration Method - learners are provided with a modal perfomance of skill demonstrated by the teacher in live form or electronically operated.

Heuristic Method (Armstrong) - learner centered method where learners are encouraged to discover knowledge for themselves, involves placing students as far as possible in the position of discovery, the teacher poses the problem to the class and all students work individually and explore possibilities based on their own observation and own judgement, the teacher observes and facilitates students to reach to the goals.

Discovery Method - student centered method allows learning by doing. Bruner . Teacher plans a set of activites that are highly flexible and the sequence of activities can be changed at any time. The teacher involve students in performing activites, doing experiments, framing hypothesis, nothing observations and making inferences.

Project Method - learner is actively involved in investigating the area of his interest, projects are planned for large durations, teacher acts as a supervisor who helps students time to time to carry out the project in a scientific way, the teacher monitors the progress of the project and provides appropriate inputs and accesses the work.

Current Trends of Pedagogy Paradigms

Learner - all learners are different, all can learn, they construct their own knowledge, learner's personal background, prior experience, interest and motivation contribute significanttly towards their ability to learn.

Learning - is an active discourse on the part of learner, it is experimental, it can be strengthened by providing sufficient challenges, it can be enriching experience when all learners are a part of learning community working together to achieve a common goal teacher - teacher is not a giver of knowledge, is a facilitator who helps learner to construct knowledge, teachers' personal attitude beliefs and experiences affect the choice and style of learning, teacher has to be a learner himself to grow as a teacher teaching - it is an active engagement between teacher and learner, teaching is successful in a stress free, emotionally secure learning environment

Components of Effective Teaching

Knowledge and love of the content and for learners, planning preparing and organization, enthusiasm for teaching, ability to stimulate learner thought and interests

Teaching Aids

Any kind of resource used by a teacher to facilitate, strengthen learning. It can various modes and varies styles of presentations visual aids - used to provide visual representation, in the form of text pictures, graphs illustrations tables photo clip etc interactive aids - based on computer technology such as video conferencing, presentation, quiz software, web resources

Process of Teaching

Writing a Lesson Plan - lesson plan is a detailed layout to teach academic content in a given period of time. A lesson plan helps teachers to organize the entries teacher teaching learning

Proces Lesson Opening - review what has already been learnt, intro new session by connecting prev knowledge, motivate lesson layout - provide description, specify activities, asses learners understanding extended practise closure of lesson - review the key points, make learners draw the conclusions, create transitions smooth one to another lesson

Evaluation System

It requires systematic analysis of multiple types of evidences collected by the teachers to make judgements about students learning progress, to make diagnosis about students learning difficulties and at the same time assessing the effectiveness of the curriculum program educational policies and teachers own teaching approach. it has following steps-

Teaching learning cycle process - preparation -> transaction -> assessment -> evaluation -> reflection

Assessment -> Evaluation

Assessment - preliminary phase and systematic process to gather meaningful information and evidences about the learners learning process by tests and assignment

Evaluation - action phase and allows teachers to make judgements based on assessments records with reference to pre-set learning

Types of Evaluation

Criterion Referenced Evaluation - interpretable in terms of defined domain of learning tasks norm referenced evaluation - interpretable in terms of an individuals relative standing in some known group

Formation Evaluation - everyday classroom opportunities that teacher develops during classroom discourses, its an ongoing classroom process summative evaluation - occurs at the end of the unit study, its main purpose is to evaluate amount of learning over a period of time

Diagnostic Evaluation - aims to diagnose the nature and degree of learning difficulties faced by the learner, it involves gathering information about learner ' errors nature of and possible reason of errors

Prognostic Evaluation - aims to predict the possible degree of success in specific subject area. it helps to gather evidences related to conceptual understanding and other prerequisite stills that are significant for success in that particular subject area
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